John Ward John Ward is a filmmaker who at 36 has over twenty years of experience. A child actor who appeared in his first movie at 12, by 25, he wrote, produced and directed his first film, Enchanted. John now works on his own and is slated to direct his latest project, The Shroud, later this year. John regularly teaches high school students at Mariners Church as well as leads a small group of high schoolers.
Jeff Pries Jeff Pries' last eleven out of fourteen years as a pastor have been spent as Small Groups Pastor of Mariners Church, as well as a member of the Mariners Church speaking team. His greatest passion in ministry is trying to get people to talk about life honestly, and helping them realize that with God, they can tackle anything. Home Ministry Ministry Resources Courses. Rate This Product. Delivery and Shipping. Liquid Series. Show More. Available for immediate download. Read using our free app on your tablet or mobile!
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The Multiple Mirror Telescope
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Unglued Participant's Guide. The connection to the supernatural world of the gods and ancestors that the mirror represented, rather than the mirror itself as a physical object, allowed the rulers to assert their authority over the rest of the population. This trend suggests that cultural values or experiences shared among these speakers may be altered by the processes through which they acquire literacy, which, as Danziger and Pederson note , is usually achieved in Spanish, not in their indigenous tongue. As Danziger and Pederson point out , the participants literate in a Roman script, including the Maya speakers, have presumably been trained to distinguish between certain letters that are mirror images of each other and yet represent distinct phonemes, like "p" and "q".
This trend seems to contradict the authors' hypothesis that one's literacy training in a Roman script would cultivate one's impulse to differentiate between mirror images. Indeed, Danziger personal communication, believes that mirror image perception is not a development stage undergone by all children. These data suggest that the modern Maya may share tendency to accept such reversed forms as equivalent to the originals in certain contexts.
In a geocentric, as opposed to an intrinsic or an egocentric, frame of reference, the spatial relationship between objects is expressed in terms of the external surroundings, most significantly the cardinal directions Le Guen, As mentioned, evidence for the ancient Maya use of mirrors in shamanistic contexts indicates that mirrors communicated a religious authority that, in certain contexts, may have played a significant role in establishing political legitimacy.
As objects, mirrors were "symbols of ritual upon which identity and legitimacy depended" and "therefore symbols of rule" Saunders, 22 that constituted important tools in negotiating political power, especially in ceremonial contexts. All of these events would have asserted and affirmed the ruling protagonists' political legitimacy and supremacy. Carlson also posits that mirrors played a physical and symbolic role in a "'mirror ceremony'" that served to mark "the transfer of royal lineal power, heir designation, or accession to rulership".
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The concept of the mirror as a portal between the supernatural and human worlds may have been especially influential in determining the political significance of mirrors in ancient Maya society. Ancient Maya political and religious authority figures may have used mirrors to contact members of the divine realm, which would have positioned them as mediators between the laypeople and supernatural beings Healy and Blainey, The impurity of the mirror's distorted reflection would have heightened the illusion that it created another world to which it allowed the user temporary access Saunders, 1, 7, By establishing this connection, however tenuous, to the supernatural sphere, the human user would have experienced a certain change of state induced by this ritual exposure to the otherworldly realm.
However, I extend this capacity for ritual transformation to the monuments represented in this study, many of which were elements of larger architectural structures. By reversing the hieroglyphs and thus presuming to present an inverted, ceremonial interpretation of reality, mirrored hieroglyphic passages furthermore extended ritual participation beyond the monument's protagonists to the viewer, actively engaging the viewer in the ritual process by connecting the viewer with the supernatural. Reversed monumental texts thus not only passively symbolized, but also actively facilitated the viewer's transformation into a ritual participant whose access to the otherworldly made the viewer something more than a mere human.
The mirror image was not intended to be a perfect replica of reality, but rather a window into an alternative world. Given the aforementioned symbolic relationship between caves, mouths, and serpents, this image likely indicates that the protagonist is emerging from a supernatural realm. Scholars often interpret the scene on Lintel 25 as illustrating the function of ritual bloodletting in allowing the ruler or even his wife "to transcend the world of the mundane and communicate with gods and divine ancestors" Schele and Miller, ; Steiger, 5.
Yet it was the monument's living viewer, not the actors described on the monument, who interacted directly with the one component of the physical lintel most directly related to a mirror: the reversed text. The mirrored text thus encourages the viewer to participate in the ceremony and to come into contact with the supernatural, much as the monument's protagonists do by taking part in the rituals. In these cases, the symbolism of the reversed text indicating transformation may not have been limited to representing the viewer's general change of state into a ritual participant.
The ancient Maya may have conceived of changes in political leadership as indicative of transformation on the level of both society and the individual civilian.
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As a result, the use of mirrored hieroglyphs on monuments recording politically significant events would have been an even more salient indication of the events' consequences. Furthermore, the contrast between unreversed and reversed passages was essential in communicating the transformations occurring in both the broader Maya political landscape and the individual viewer.
The structural differences between the various sections may also have highlighted their disparities in content. The unreversed conclusion of Site R Lintel 3 consists primarily of Yaxhun Bahlam IV's titles; the contrast presented with his reversed name glyphs at the conclusion of the mirrored passage may indicate the transformational consequences of his reign upon the polity and its population. This effect would have been particularly important in facilitating recognition of the unusual structure by an illiterate viewer who was relatively unfamiliar with the glyphs. Just as the relationship of the glyphs to each other was more significant in conveying meaning than the orientation of each individual glyph, it was the structural contrast between the differently oriented passages, rather than the unusual representation of each glyph, that most effectively communicated the change in state that the monument both represented and effected in the viewer.
The hieroglyphs, the images, and their content together became part of the viewer's ritual experience, channels through which the viewer achieved contact with the supernatural realm. Mirroring a passage of monumental text thus affected the viewer's relationship with the monument as a whole.
The contrast in orientation created by juxtaposing glyphs written in opposite directions signaled to the viewer the change of state associated with the activities and protagonists recorded on the monument. The alternative structure encouraged the viewer to reevaluate reality and relocated him or her to an alternative, ritual context.
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The mirrored directionality of the hieroglyphic text directly engaged the viewer, transforming the context in which the viewer would have interpreted the monument's message and thereby shaping the viewer's relationship with the monument. Akers, Danielle C. Master of Arts Thesis. Lubbock, Texas: Texas Tech University, 57 pp. Baudez, Claude F. Willey eds. Washington, D. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Boone, Elizabeth Hill and Walter D.
Durham: Duke University Press. Boot, Erik. Finkel eds. Bricker, Victoria R. Carlson, John B. Stirling , Elizabeth P.
Benson ed. Lange ed.