Such a worldview also defined the southern position in the displaced persons debate that took place in and In , Harry Truman had already requested Congress to rewrite legislation for admitting displaced persons into the country.
Eastland Ice Rink
The president could finally sign a new bill two years later, but he was not very enthusiastic about it. The president had hoped Congress would design a lenient law with low entry requirements, but the powerful conservative caucus on Capitol Hill had other thoughts. These politicians were not very eager to open the borders for victims of World War II.
The result was a very restrictive bill that set firm quotas on the admittance of displaced persons into the United States. Democratic Senator Pat McCarran, a reactionary rancher from Nevada, had senior status on the Judiciary Committee, which decides on immigration matters. McCarran in fact wanted to ship most refugees to Alaska and keep the American mainland free of displaced persons.
After the Democratic victory in the elections, Truman expected that his party would draft a more liberal displaced persons DP law. Chairman McCarran was one of them. The biggest obstacle for these two Democrats from the North was a subcommittee composed by McCarran that had to examine proposals for a revised DP law.
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Republican William Jenner of Indiana and Jim Crow Democrat James Eastland were members of this committee and they vehemently opposed liberal amendments to the act. After almost four months of hearings, Pat McCarran announced he had to go to Europe to personally examine the refugee situation in the region. His trip was a stalling strategy to keep the bill in committee. McCarran relied on senatorial courtesy that the full Senate would not debate new legislation when the chairman was away on a fact-finding mission.
Parts of the original proposal had made it through the subcommittee hearings, but Congressman Celler was not very content with the alterations to his bill and called it a fraud. The subcommittee also decided to retain specific quota arrangements from the original displaced persons act of These quotas favoured refugees coming from Europe and who were involved in agriculture. Especially German transplants in Eastern Europe benefited from such provisions.
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These so-called Volksdeutsche were ethnic Germans who were born and living outside Germany. Many of them had fled their homeland after the post-war communist takeover. Jewish people became the victim of the subcommittee version of the Celler bill, because the preferential treatment of Germanic refugees decreased the number of Jewish fugitives eligible for entry into the United States. Senator Eastland strongly supported the positive discrimination of Germans from Soviet-occupied zones who wanted to come to the States.
Opponents of a more tolerant displaced persons policy feared the influx of communist spies from Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Senate, had in fact received information about refugees forging passports, college degrees, birth certificates and even family Bibles. Jim Crow spokesmen claimed that minorities such as African Americans but also Jews were more open to Marxist ideology.
Democratic Congressman John Rankin from Mississippi voiced this viewpoint in extreme language. Amy Kaplan has demonstrated how in the U. Senator Eastland for instance wanted to open U. Eastland thought this stigma of collaboration negatively affected the entire community after the war. For him, Germanic fugitives trying to escape communist oppression did not form a threat to the American Way of Life, which became very obvious when he compared them with refugees from Eastern and Central Europe of different ethnic stock. Senator Eastland was open to immigration, but the newcomers should have an ethnicity compatible with the WASP heritage of the South and the United States.
Moreover, they should have clearly displayed their anti-communist sentiments. As tensions between Soviet Russia and the United States increased, Eastland was not the only American who voiced such opinions. The ideas expressed by Jim Crow politicians on the refugee situation fit into a wider regional worldview that had the Cold War as its framework.
The fear that alien forces wanted to destroy the Southern Way of Life was central to this system of thought. Moreover, high officials in the Truman administration had similar views. White southerners were therefore not the only ones who connected ethnicity with subversive behaviour, but their representatives in Congress had the political power to influence legislation about refugees and the economic reconstruction of Europe. On the basis of the system of seniority, many of them chaired congressional committees that directly dealt with Cold War issues, such as the Foreign Relations Committee and the Armed Services Committee.
In later years, these two regions, the West and the South, would of course form the bedrock of a revamped Republican Party. In , this conservative coalition was unable to prevent the passage of a fairly liberal displaced persons law. The law provided for the establishment of a subversive activities control board, which registered members of communist and front organizations, denied passports and government positions to Marxist sympathizers, intensified espionage legislation and made the extradition of subversive aliens easier.
Liberals opposed the bill, but it still passed Congress on 20 September. President Truman did not want to sign it. He thought the McCarran Act laid the cornerstone for the creation of a totalitarian state, with little regard for basic civil liberties, either of foreigners or U.
S citizens. Truman therefore sent the bill back to Capitol Hill.
Congress overrode it, and the Internal Security Act of became law on 23 September. It became a powerful weapon for congressional guardians of Jim Crow, who would use the act to persecute all agents of progressive change, including civil rights workers and labour activists.
Jim Crow Democrats based their Cold War policy decisions on a white supremacist worldview. Their support for the reconstruction of Germany, the Marshall Plan and a strict displaced persons law was connected to the defence of the existing race and class system in the U.
The danger of communist expansion and infiltration and the post-war process of decolonization posed a menace to traditional power structures, both at home and abroad. The southern economy relied on free markets, military spending and cheap labour. Racial and class identity determined social status in the American South.
Issues of race and labour were therefore intimately linked in the southern states, which made politicians from the area very apprehensive about the advancement of human rights, not only by the U. Because human rights advocates promoted political and socioeconomic justice, white southerners considered their message a direct danger to established race and class relations in the region.
World War II not only transformed the international system of politics, but also caused massive change within the United States, particularly in the South. This process had already started with the New Deal, but accelerated during the war. The mechanization of agriculture, military industrialization in the southern states and the rise of the civil rights movement strained class and race relations in the region. African American veterans who returned home after defeating fascism formed the vanguard in the battle for racial equality.
They pointed out the paradox of American foreign policy: while the United States claimed to be fighting for freedom and democracy abroad, a system of institutionalized segregation was still firmly in place in a large part of the country. Segregationists often conflated Americanism with anti-communism to present their Jim Crow agenda as the epitome of U. As such, opponents of the southern status quo — civil rights and labour activists at home, left-wing freedom fighters abroad — automatically became dangerous Soviet sympathizers.
The domestic defence of segregation also translated into strong southern backing for anti-communist strongmen after World War II, like Francisco Franco of Spain and Rafael Trujillo of the Dominican Republic. Senator Olin Johnston of South Carolina visited the country in and contrasted the situation there with political instability in Haiti. The origins of these tropes can be traced back to the antebellum era, when Haiti gained independence through an uprising of its enslaved population and slavery in the southern United States began to expand.
Besides anti-communism, Eastland and other segregationists from the United States thus could relate to Trujillo on other levels too. He forcefully ran the country as his own sugar plantation and created a colour line between Dominicans and darker-skinned Haitians that must have appeared familiar to Jim Crow apologists. The notion of freedom in the Jim Crow South was shaped by the fear of national and international revolutionary change, instigated by communist sympathizers, independence fighters and human rights activists.
The vast national and international transformations that occurred after World War II filled advocates of Jim Crow with anxiety. The communist advance inside and outside the United States, for them exemplified by the civil rights movement on the one hand and the Red Army on the other, had to be stopped. Immediately after the Nazis were defeated, Germany became part of a global ecosystem of white supremacy created by proponents of Jim Crow democracy who wanted to protect their racialized vision of Americanism and spread it across the world.
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At the same time, this racialized vision defined white southern views during the displaced persons debate in the United States. South at Global Scales Athens, 1— Foreign Relations, — Baton Rouge, , Emphasis in original. Through is rough exterior he was a warm and exuberant Dwarf, quick to laugh. Raybur was a master general and together with Risca , lead the Dwarven army in a very successful withdrawal across the Central and Lower Anar, delaying the Northland army.
Finally they retreated from Stedden Keep deep into the Anar. When the Northland army left considering the Dwarves dealt with, Raybur sent the rest of his army north and west to help the Elves after hearing word from Kinson Ravenlock and Mareth. It was Raybur's force that was able to halt the remnants of the Northland army on the Streleheim , which allowed Jerle Shannara to defeat the Warlock Lord.
Upon his return to the Eastland , Raybur rebuilt all the towns and homes that had been razed by the Northlanders. He is the one that planned and had planted the Meade Gardens in Culhaven. It is there that he had the body of his best friend Risca buried. He ruled the Dwarves in relative peace afterwards.
His greatest legacy was the dams of Capaal. A series of dams and locks on the Silver River to protect the Dwarf lands from floods, protected by a massive fortress. It has served to protect the Lower Anar and help it flourish.